The Nile, Egypt’s lifeline
Prof. Amal Shawer
On June 24, 2021
At 5:00 pm EST
The aim of this lecture is to explain the importance of the Nile River for Egypt and Egyptians historically, economically, and geographically. Egypt is divided into four regions: Western Desert, Eastern Desert, Sinai, Nile valley and Delta. Its area is 1 million km2. The Nile means life for Egypt. In ancient times, the Nile was the cradle of civilization. All progress in astronomy, mathematics, and agriculture were connected with its water. About 98% of the population in Egypt lives in the Nile valley and Delta, (3.6%) of its area. Water resources in Egypt are estimated by 72.5 mm3, about 78% is from the Nile. The Nile in Egypt gets its water from two sources: the permanent one is the equatorial lakes plateau (15%) and the seasonal one is from the Ethiopian plateau 85%, the Blue Nile (Abai) in Ethiopia 60%, Sobat13%, Atbara12%. The Blue Nile is the most important tributary of the Nile; therefore, the projects established on it affect water resources in Egypt, especially if we take into consideration the rapid increase of population. The Nile discharge in Egypt is characterized by high variability, seasonally, from flood to ebb or low season, and annually, from one year to another. The highest was in 1964 (106mm3), the lowest in1915 (45 mm3), while mean discharge in Egypt is (84mm3). Because of this variability, plus the need for a large amount of water for development, the rulers of Egypt in the 19th century established many barrages on the Nile channel to supply the fields with water during low seasons in order to cultivate summer crops such as cotton and sugarcane. The first dam built on the Nile was the Aswan reservoir (1902), for annual storage, from flood to low season. Then, the High Dam was built (1972) for long term storage from years of high discharges to low ones. There are two agreements for dividing the Nile water between Egypt and Sudan: the first was in 1929 and the second was in 1959. There are many dams on the Nile outside Egypt, but the most dangerous are those built on the Blue Nile.
Prof. Amal Shawer
Prof. of Physical Geography, Geography Department,
Faculty of Arts, Cairo University
The Historical Roots of the Nile River Problem
Prof. Mohamed Afifi
On June 7, 2021
At 5:00 pm EST
Prof. Mohamed Afifi
Mohamed Afifi is a Professor at the Department of History, Faculty of Arts, Cairo University. He was the Chair of the Department for three years (2016-2019). He was the General Secretary of the Supreme Council of Culture (2014-2015). Professor Afifi was the President of the Cairo International Children’s Film Festival (2015) and the Head of the International Fair for the Arabic novel (2015).
Umm Kulthum, a legend beyond Time
Prof. Nahla Mattar
On May 18, 2021 At 5:00 PM via Zoom
This May is the 123 anniversary of great Egyptian singer Umm Kulthum.. The Star of the East…the Voice of Egypt….the Voice of Love…are the most famous titles the Egyptian singer Umm Kulthum was awarded by her audience and music lovers …actually this means a huge number of Arab fans all over the Arabic region.
An unprecedented musical phenomena, she had a unique connection with her audience. In Feb. 1975, four million people attended her official funeral in Cairo, while another virtual funeral was held in Baghdad.
As a composer, former director of Umm Kulthum Museum and as an Egyptian women, I shall guide you to the music secretes of her legend, as well as her social work efforts.
Click here to enjoy it !
Prof. Nahla Mattar
The former Director of Umm Kulthum Museum, Ministry of Culture in Egypt (2011-2014) In addition, she is a professor at the Helwan University, Cairo. Mattar got her doctorate of musical arts in composition by the Arizona State University in spring 2005.
“Egypt is the gift of the Nile” is a famous statement made by the famous Greek traveler and historian Herodotus that indicates the extent of the importance of the Nile to Egypt. Some of the great Egyptian historians responded to this statement saying that Egypt is the gift of the Nile and the gift of the Egyptians who were able to tame the Nile and establish centers of stability and civilization in Egypt in particular. From here comes the importance of what the great Egyptian thinker Gamal Hamdan called in his encyclopedia The Character of Egypt “The Nile Dimension”, which is one of the most important dimensions of the Egyptian personality. Because the Nile is the lifeblood of Egypt, all Egyptian rulers, since ancient times, have always been keen on securing the south, the source of the Nile. This activity was not military in particular, but Egypt employed its soft power mainly. This may be evident in the extension of the influences of the Pharaonic civilization to the south, especially the regions of northern Sudan. Even with regard to religions, Christianity reached Africa through Egypt, and this explains the relation between the Ethiopian Church and the Egyptian Coptic Church until the 1960s. The Coptic Church intervened a lot in resolving disputes between the rulers of Egypt and the rulers of Abyssinia (Ethiopia now). Most of these disagreements focused on the fear of Ethiopia cutting off the water supply to Egypt. Moreover, Al-Azhar played an important role in receiving Ethiopian Muslims to study and learn at this renowned institution. However, the current crisis between Ethiopia, on the one hand, and Sudan and Egypt on the other hand, is related to Ethiopia’s refusal to accept the Nile water treaties and agreements, and its argument is that such agreements were made during colonial times even though most territorial and political borders agreements were made during these times! Opening the door to the rejection of these agreements without reaching a new formula, through calm and meaningful negotiations, threatens the stability and security of the entire African continent. This will be further discussed in the lecture.
History of Medicine in Ancient Egypt
Prof. Ahmed Yousef Shahin
On April 15, 2021
At 5:00 PM via Zoom
The ancient Egyptian Civilization always surprises us with Advances the Egyptians made on the Nile shore. Who, nowadays, is not aware of The Miracles of Astronomy, Engineering as well as Art. They brought to life, thousand of years ago? But: Medicine? Really?! Do we just speak about first aid care for fractures, wound healing, recipes of medicine, or do we go all the way to Surgery, Medical Instruments, advanced techniques and sophisticated diagnostic tools for baby-sex determination and psychology? Looking at details, strikes the eye with the fact that it was not an ‘ancient’ medical management, suitable for ancient times.. but on the contrary, daring to modern era we think we are the first to live in.
We honourly present an insight into Medicine on the Nile shore, dating 7000 years ago, which put, before the World knew it, standards for Medical education, Hierarchy of doctor’s experience, and became an attraction for medical care in The region which still hold water in the time we live in.
Prof.Ahmed Youssif Shahin, MD
Current Job: Consultant Obstetrics and Gynecology, SANA Clinic, Berlin Brandenburg, GERMANY
Son of late Prof. Youssif Shahin, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt.. crowned (in 2003) with The German Merit Cross (Deutscher Verdienstkreuz) for a 30 years‘ cultural Cooperation between Germany and Egypt
نتشرف بدعوة سيادتكم لحضور ندوة
“رمضان في الذاكرة الشعبية المصرية”
أ.د خالد أبو الليل
أستاذ الأدب الشعبي-وكيل كلية الأداب
يوم الثلاثاء الموافق 20 ابريل 2021
الساعة الخامسة مساءا من خلال تقنية زووم
عندما يهل علينا شهر رمضان المبارك يستدعي في الذاكرة المصرية الكثير من العادات والتقاليد والمعتقدات الشعبية, و كل منها يستدعي ذكريات وحنينا الي زمن مضي, جميعها يرتبط بالأسرة في معناها الصغير, أو الأسرة المصرية في معناها الكبير.
الانتظار لليلة الرؤية, و التهليل والألعاب و الأغاني المصاحبة لذلك, ومدفع الافطار والامساك, و فانوس رمضان, وحلويات رمضان ومأكولاته ومشروباته, وموائد الرحمن, والاستماع الي المدائح النبوية, والسيرة الشعبية,… الي غير ذلك من طقوس شعبية, لكل واحد منها تاريخه وواقعه.
هذا ما يدور حوله حديثنا, التوقف عند هذه المظاهر الرمضانية, نبحث في تاريخها ونتلمسها في واقعنا الراهن.
أ.د خالد أبو الليل أستاذ الأدب الشعبي-وكيل كلية الأداب جامعة القاهرة
أستاذ بقسم اللغة العربية وآدابها، كلية الآداب، جامعة القاهرة
الليسانس الممتازة في الآداب من قسم اللغة العربية بآداب القاهرة، بتقدير عام جيد جدًا مع مرتبة الشرف وكات الترتيب الأول على الدفعة عام 1999
Invites you to the live lecture
Egypt, The First Open- air Museum in the World
Prof. Khaled Shahin
On April 30, 2021
At 5:00 PM via Zoom
Egypt and its civilization represent one of the most important and greatest civilizations in the world that left a great heritage that was not matched by another civilization, so Egypt is almost the only country that has a knowledge of its name Egyptology.
the ancient Egyptian heritage was not that preserved by museums began with modern times, but this is not a true, as the ancestors left a legacy that indicates their preservation and care of the heritage of those who preceded them, and even worked to display these monuments to serve as an open air museum for Egyptian civilization
Among those who cared about the matter was Khaaoemwaset, son of Ramses II, whose name we find as restorer of monuments of king Khefren and Unas.
It seems that the boy followed his father’s efforts to preserve the treasures of his ancestors he says (I renewed the traces of my father Amun Ra, lord of thrones of the two lands)
In the Ptolemaic Period, the rulers established the Library of Alexandria, the first governmental library in the world, and an Academy of Scientific Research, whose name was Museon, from which the word museum and its synonyms are used in all languages.
City of Alexandria represents an excellent example of the Open-air museum
This city founded by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C, to be the great harbor on the Mediterranean.
One can see the Necropolis of Chatby, Mustapha Pasha, Kom el-Chouqafa.
Current position: Head of Greco-roman archaeology department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University
University specialization: History, Archaeology and Civilization of Egypt in the Pharaonic and Greco-roman Period